Zhang Xueliang Commander-in-Chief Commemorative Medal/贈良學張 張総司令長官記念章

No. 29 000 (maximum known number for today).

Size 50 x 46 mm.​

張総司令長官記念章 -.JPG

張総司令長官記念章 ..JPG

In the center of obverse photo of Chang Hsüeh-liang /張學良/ (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), also romanized as Zhang Xueliang, nicknamed the "Young Marshal" /少帥/, known in his later life as Peter H. L. Chang, who was the effective ruler of Northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin (the "Old Marshal"), by the Japanese on 4 June 1928. He was an instigator of the 1936 Xi'an Incident, in which Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of China's ruling party, was arrested in order to force him to enter into a truce with the insurgent Communist Party of China and form a united front against Japan, which had occupied Manchuria. Chiang agreed, but when he had an opportunity, he seized Chang, who then spent over 50 years under house arrest, first in mainland China and then in Taiwan.


Reverse bears number 29 000 and

贈良學張 - Gift from Zhang Xueliang

張総司令長官記念章  ..JPG

Original case.

張総司令長官記念章 - Zhang Xueliang Commander-in-Chief Commemorative Medal


All known medals were manufactured by Yibeizheng workshop.

Design of the medal completely borrowed from the Japanese Red Cross Merit Badge /Order/.​

張総司令長官記念章 ..JPG

In fact, Zhang Xueliang was awarded with this japanese award.

Japanese Red Cross Merit Order.jpg
Japanese Red Cross Merit  Order.jpg

He also was awarded with the Japanese Red Cross Special Member Medal and Order of the Sacred Treasure.

Zhang Xueliang.jpg


Zhang   Xueliang.jpg

Zhang  Xueliang.jpg

Chang Hsüeh-liang was born in Haicheng, Liaoning province on 3 June 1901, Chang was educated by private tutors and, unlike his father, felt at ease in the company of westerners. He graduated from Fengtian Military Academy, was made a colonel in the Fengtian Army, and appointed the commander of his father's bodyguards in 1919. In 1921 he was sent to Japan to observe military maneuvers, where he developed a special interest in aircraft. Later, he developed an air corps for the Fengtian Army, which was widely used in the battles that took place within the Great Wall during the 1920s. In 1922, he was promoted to Major General and commanded an army-sized force. Two years later, he was also made commander of the air units. Upon the death of his father in 1928, he succeeded him as the leader of the Northeast Peace Preservation Forces (popularly "Northeast Army"), which controlled China's northeastern provinces of Heilongjiang, Fengtian, and Jilin (Kirin). In December of the same year he proclaimed his allegiance to the Kuomintang (KMT; Chinese Nationalist Party).

The Japanese believed that Chang Hsüeh-liang, who was known as a womanizer and an opium addict, would be much more subject to Japanese influence than was his father. On this premise, an officer of the Japanese Kwantung Army therefore killed his father, Zhang Zuolin (the "Old Marshal"), in the Huanggutun incident, by exploding a bomb above his train while it crossed under a railroad bridge. Surprisingly, the younger Chang proved to be more independent and skilled than anyone had expected and declared his support for Chiang Kai-shek, leading to the reunification of China in 1928. With the assistance of Australian journalist William Henry Donald, he overcame his opium addiction in 1933.

He was given the nickname "Hero of History" (千古功臣) by PRC historians because of his desire to reunite China and rid it of Japanese invaders; and was willing to pay the price and become "vice" leader of China (not because it was good that he was supporting the Kuomintang). In order to rid his command of Japanese influence, he had two prominent pro-Tokyo officials executed in front of the assembled guests at a dinner party in January 1929. It was a hard decision for him to make. The two had powers over the heads of others. In May 1929, relations between the Kuomintang Nanjing and the excessively strengthened Feng Yuxiang worsened. In addition, the Japanese government, dissatisfied with the pro-Kuomintang policy of Zhang Zuolin, and now his son, threatened to "take the most decisive measures to ensure that the Kuomintang flag never flies over Manchuria". The" young Marshal " supported Nanjing, and Feng's troops were pushed back to the outlying provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, and in July 1929, Japan officially recognized Kuomintang China. At the same time, Zhang Xueliang and Chiang Kai-shek held a personal meeting in Beiping, at which a decision was made on the armed seizure of the Chinese Eastern Railway or CER. By pushing Zhang Xueliang to take this step, Chiang Kai-shek sought to make the young marshal completely dependent on Nanjing and at the same time raise his prestige and get most of the profits from the operation of the CER at the disposal of Nanjing. Zhang Xueliang, in turn, believed that the capture of the CER would strengthen his position in the Northeast, allow him to personally manage the profits of the CER, and ensure his independence from Nanjing. As a result, on July 10, 1929, the Conflict on the CER began. However, the Red Army showed a higher combat capability, and the conflict ended with the signing of the Khabarovsk Protocol of December 22, 1929.

In 1930, when warlords Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan attempted to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang government, Chang stepped in to support the Nanking (Nanjing)-based government against the Northern warlords in exchange for control of the key railroads in Hopeh (Hebei) and the customs revenues from the port city of Tianjin. A year later, in the September 18 Mukden Incident, Japanese troops attacked Chang's forces in Mukden (Shenyang) in order to provoke a full-on war with China, which Chiang did not want to face until his forces were stronger. In accordance with this strategy, Zhang's armies withdrew from the front lines without significant engagements, leading to the effective Japanese occupation of Zhang's former northeastern domain. There has been speculation that Chiang Kai-Shek wrote a letter to Chang asking him to pull his forces back, but Zhang later stated that he himself issued the orders. Apparently, Chang was aware of how weak his forces were compared to the Japanese and wished to preserve his position by retaining a sizeable army. Nonetheless, this would still be in line with Chiang's overall strategic standings. Chang later traveled in Europe before returning to China to take command of the Encirclement Campaigns, first in Hopeh-Honan (Henan)-Anhui and later in the Northwest.

Xi'an incident

On 6 April 1936, Chang met with CPC delegate Zhou Enlai to plan the end of the Chinese Civil War. KMT leader Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek at the time took a non-aggressive position against Japan and considered the communists to be a greater danger to the Republic of China than the Japanese, and his overall strategy was to annihilate the communists before focusing his efforts on the Japanese. He believed that "communism was a cancer while the Japanese represented a superficial wound." Growing nationalist anger against Japan made this position very unpopular, and led to Chang's action against Chiang, known as the Xi'an Incident.

On 12 December 1936, Chang and General Yang Hucheng kidnapped Chiang and imprisoned him until he agreed to form a united front with the communists against the Japanese invasion. After two weeks of negotiations, Chiang agreed to unite with the communists and drive the Japanese out of China. When Chiang was released on 26 December, Chang chose to return to the capital city of Nanking with him; once they were away from Chang's loyal troops, Chiang had him placed under house arrest. From then on, he was under constant watch and lived near the Nationalist capital city, wherever it moved to.​

It seems like later he was wearing his own commemorative medal inside the medal bar.

Lt Gen Zhang Xueliang.jpg

Two crosses (3rd and 5th awards from the right) of the same form in his medal bar.

Lt Gen Zhang Xueliang..jpg
No. 28 901

Zhang Xueliang Commander-in-Chief Commemorative Medal.jpg

Zhang Xueliang Commander-in-Chief Commemorative  Medal.jpg


贈良學張 張総司令長官記念章.jpg

贈良學張 張総司令長官記念章..jpg

Original case.

贈良學張 張総司令長官記念章 ..jpg

贈良學張 張総司令長官記念章  ..jpg
No. 22 954 (specimen from the Harry Mohler Collection, Hoover Institution, Stanford University)

No. 22 954.JPG
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    china republic awards and decorations warlord era china awards and decorations warlord era china medals warlord era china orders zhang xueliang commemorative medal 贈良學張張総司令長官記念章
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